Tuesday, 7 May 2013

Electromagnetic Brake



          Electromagnetic brakes are the brakes working on the electric power & magnetic power. They works on the principle of electromagnetism. These are totally friction less. Due to this they are more durable & have longer life span. Less maintenance is there. These brakes are an excellent replacement on the convectional brakes  due to their many advantages. The reason for implementing this brake in automobiles is to reduce wear in brakes as it friction less. Therefore there will also be no heat loss. It can be used in heavy vehicles as well as in light vehicles. The electromagnetic brakes are much effective than conventional brakes & the time taken for application of brakes are also smaller. There is very few need of lubrication. Electromagnetic brakes gives such better performance with less cost which is today’s need. There are also many more advantages of Electromagnetic brakes. That’s why electromagnetic brakes are en excellent replacement on conventional brakes.
          Electromagnetic brakes are of today’s automobiles. A electromagnetic braking system for automobiles like cars, an effective braking system. And, by using this electromagnetic brakes, we can increase the life of the braking unit. The working principle of this system is that when the magnetic flux passes through and perpendicular to the rotating wheel the eddy current flows opposite to the rotating wheel/rotor direction. This eddy current trying to stop the rotating wheel or rotor. This results in the rotating wheel or rotor comes to rest/ neutral.

HISTORY

          It is found that electromagnetic brakes can develop a negative power which represents nearly twice the maximum power output of a typical engine, and at least three times the braking power of an exhaust brake. (Reverdin 1994). These performance of electromagnetic brakes make them much more competitive candidate for alternative retardation equipments compared with other retarders. By using by using the electromagnetic brakes are supplementary retardation equipment, the friction brakes can be used less frequently, and therefore practically never reach high temperatures. The brake linings would last considerably longer before requiring maintenance and the potentially “brake fade” problem could be avoided. In research conducted by a truck manufacturer, it was proved that the electromagnetic brake assumed 80% of the duty which would otherwise have been demanded of the regular service brake (Reverdin 1974). Further more the electromagnetic brakes prevents the danger that can arise from the prolonged use of brake beyond  their capability to dissipate heat. This is most likely to occur  while a vehicle  descending a long gradient at high speed. Ina study with a vehicle with 5 axles and weighting 40 tones powered by a powered by an engine of 310 b.h.p travelling down a gradient of 6% at a steady speed between 35 and 40 m.h.p, it can be calculated that the braking power necessary to maintain this speed ot the order of 450 hp. The brakes, therefore, would have to absorb 300 hp, meaning that each brake in the 5 axels must absorb 30 hp, that a friction brake can normally absorb with selfdestruction. The magnetic brake is wall suited to such conditions since it will independently absorb more than 300 hp (Reverdin 1974). It therefore can exceed the requirements of continuous uninterrupted braking, leaving the friction brakes cool and ready for emergency braking in total safety. The installation of an electromagnetic brake is not very difficulty if there is enough space between the gearbox and the rear axle. If did not need a subsidiary cooling system. It relay on the efficiency of engine components for its use, so do exhaust and hydrokinetic brakes. The exhaust brake is an on/off device and hydrokinetic brakes have very complex control system. The electromagnetic brake control system is an electric switching system which gives it superior controllability.

CONSTRUCTION

          The construction of the electromagnetic braking system is very simple. The parts needed for the construction are electromagnetic, rheostat, sensors and magnetic insulator. A cylindrical ring shaped electromagnet with winding is placed parallel to rotating wheel disc/ rotor. The electro magnet is fixed, like as stator and coils are wounded along the electromagnet. These coils are connected with electrical circuit containing one rheostat which is connected with brake pedal. And the rheostat is used to control the current flowing is used to control the magnetic flux. And also it is used to prevent the magnetization of other parts like axle and it act as asupport frame for the electromagnet. The sensor used to indicate the disconnection in the whole circuit. If there is any error it gives an alert, so we can avoid accident.


WORKING PRINCIPLE

          The working principle of the electric retarder is based on the electric retarder is based on the creation of eddy currents with in a metal discs rotating rotating between two electro magnets, which set up a force opposing the rotation of the discs. If the electromagnet is not energized, the rotation of the disc free and accelerates uniformly under the action of the weight to which its shaft is connected. When the electromagnet is energized, the rotation of the disc is retarded and the energy absorbed appears as heating of the discs. If the current exciting the electromagnet is varied by a rheostat, the raking force varies  indirect proportion of the value of the current. The development of this invention began when the French company Telma, associated with Raoul Sarazin, developed and marketed several generations of electric brake based on the functioning principle described above. A typical retarder consists of stator and rotor. The stator hold 16 induction coils, energized separately in group of four. The coils are made up of varnished aluminium wire mounted in epoxy resin. The stator assembly is supported resiliently through anti-vibration mountings on the chasis frame of the vehicle. The rotor is made up of two discs, which provide the braking force when subjected to the electromagnetic influence when the coil are excited. Care fully design of the fins, which are integral to the disc, permit independent cooling of the arrangement.

ADVANTAGES

1. Electromagnetic brakes can develop a negative power which represents nearly twice the maximum power output of a typical engine.

 2. Electromagnetic brakes work in a relatively cool condition and satisfy all
the energy requirements of braking at high speeds, completely without the use of friction. Due to its specific installation location (transmission line of rigid vehicles), electromagnetic brakes have better heat dissipation capability to avoid problems that friction brakes face times the braking power of an exhaust brake.

 3. Electromagnetic brakes have been used as supplementary retardation equipment in addition to the regular friction brakes on heavy vehicles.

 4. Electromagnetic brakes has great braking efficiency and has the potential to regain energy lost in braking.

 5. It’s component cost is less.

DISADVANTAGES

1. The installation of an electromagnetic brake is very difficult if there is
Not enough space between the gearbox and the rear axle.

2. Need a separate compressor. 
3. Maintenance of the equipment components such as hoses, valves has to done periodically. 

4. It cannot use grease or oil.

APPLICATIONS

1. Used in crane control system.

2. Used in winch controlling.

3. Used in lift controlling.

4. Used in automatic purpose.



          The lot’s of new technologies are arriving in world. They create a lot of effect. Most industries got their new faces due to this arrival of technologies. Automobile industry is also one of them. There is a boom in World’s automobile industry. So lot’s of research is also going here. As an important part of automobile, there are also innovations in brakes. Electromagnetic brake is one of them.
          A electromagnetic braking for automobiles like cars, an effective braking system. And, by using this electromagnetic brakes, we can increase the life of the braking unit. The working principle of this system is that when the electromagnetic flux passes through and perpendicular to the rotating wheel the eddy current is induced in the rotating wheel or rotor. This eddy current flows opposite to the rotating wheel. This eddy current tries to stop the rotating wheel or rotor. This results in the rotating wheel or rotor comes to rest.

CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection)


     CRDi stands for Common Rail Direct Injection meaning, direct injection of the fuel into the cylinders of a diesel engine via a single, common line, called the common rail which is connected to all the fuel injectors.

     Whereas ordinary diesel direct fuel-injection systems have to build up pressure anew for each and every injection cycle, the new common rail (line) engines maintain constant pressure regardless of the injection sequence. This pressure then remains permanently available throughout the fuel line. The engine's electronic timing regulates injection pressure according to engine speed and load. The electronic control unit (ECU) modifies injection pressure precisely and as needed, based on data obtained from sensors on the cam and crankshafts. In other words, compression and injection occur independently of each other. This technique allows fuel to be injected as needed, saving fuel and lowering emissions.

     More accurately measured and timed mixture spray in the combustion chamber significantly reducing unburned fuel gives CRDi the potential to meet future emission guidelines such as Euro V. CRDi engines are now being used in almost all Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, Hyundai, Ford and many other diesel automobiles.


History


     The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco Ganser at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, later of Ganser-Hydromag AG (est.1995) in Oberägeri. The first successful usage in a production vehicle began in Japan by the mid-1990s. Modern common rail systems, whilst working on the same principle, are governed by an engine control unit (ECU) which opens each injector electronically rather than mechanically. This was extensively prototyped in the 1990s with collaboration between Magneti Marelli, Centro Ricerche Fiat and Elasis. The first passenger car that used the common rail system was the 1997 model Alfa Romeo 156 2.4 JTD, and later on that same year Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI.

     Common rail engines have been used in marine and locomotive applications for some time. The Cooper-Bessemer GN-8 (circa 1942) is an example of a hydraulically operated common rail diesel engine, also known as a modified common rail. Vickers used common rail systems in submarine engines circa 1916. Early engines had a pair of timing cams, one for ahead running and one for astern. Later engines had two injectors per cylinder, and the final series of constant-pressure turbocharged engines were fitted with four injectors per cylinder. This system was used for the injection of both diesel oil and heavy fuel oil (600cSt heated to a temperature of approximately 130 °C). The common rail system is suitable for all types of road cars with diesel engines, ranging from city cars such as the Fiat Nuova Panda to executive cars such as the Audi A6.

Operating Principle


     Solenoid or piezoelectric valves make possible fine electronic control over the fuel injection time and quantity, and the higher pressure that the common rail technology makes available provides better fuel atomisation. In order to lower engine noise, the engine's electronic control unit can inject a small amount of diesel just before the main injection event ("pilot" injection), thus reducing its explosiveness and vibration, as well as optimizing injection timing and quantity for variations in fuel quality, cold starting and so on. Some advanced common rail fuel systems perform as many as five injections per stroke.

     Common rail engines require very short (< 10 second) or no heating-up time at all , dependent on ambient temperature, and produce lower engine noise and emissions than older systems. Diesel engines have historically used various forms of fuel injection. Two common types include the unit injection system and the distributor/inline pump systems (See diesel engine and unit injector for more information). While these older systems provided accurate fuel quantity and injection timing control, they were limited by several factors:

• They were cam driven, and injection pressure was proportional to engine speed. This typically meant that the highest injection pressure could only be achieved at the highest engine speed and the maximum achievable injection pressure decreased as engine speed decreased. This relationship is true with all pumps, even those used on common rail systems; with the unit or distributor systems, however, the injection pressure is tied to the instantaneous pressure of a single pumping event with no accumulator, and thus the relationship is more prominent and troublesome.


• They were limited in the number and timing of injection events that could be commanded during a single combustion event. While multiple injection events are possible with these older systems, it is much more difficult and costly to achieve.


• For the typical distributor/inline system, the start of injection occurred at a pre-determined pressure (often referred to as: pop pressure) and ended at a pre-determined pressure. This characteristic resulted from "dummy" injectors in the cylinder head which opened and closed at pressures determined by the spring preload applied to the plunger in the injector. Once the pressure in the injector reached a pre-determined level, the plunger would lift and injection would start.




     In common rail systems, a high-pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure — up to and above 2,000 bars (psi). The term "common rail" refers to the fact that all of the fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure. This accumulator supplies multiple fuel injectors with high-pressure fuel. This simplifies the purpose of the high-pressure pump in that it only has to maintain a commanded pressure at a target (either mechanically or electronically controlled). The fuel injectors are typically ECU-controlled. When the fuel injectors are electrically activated, a hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired pressure. Since the fuel pressure energy is stored remotely and the injectors are electrically actuated, the injection pressure at the start and end of injection is very near the pressure in the accumulator (rail), thus producing a square injection rate. If the accumulator, pump and plumbing are sized properly, the injection pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injection events.

Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages

     CRDi engines are advantageous in many ways. Cars fitted with this new engine technology are believed to deliver 25% more power and torque than the normal direct injection engine. It also offers superior pick up, lower levels of noise and vibration, higher mileage, lower emissions, lower fuel consumption, and improved performance.

     In India, diesel is cheaper than petrol and this fact adds to the credibility of the common rail direct injection system.

Disadvantages

     Like all good things have a negative side, this engine also have few disadvantages. The key disadvantage of the CRDi engine is that it is costly than the conventional engine. The list also includes high degree of engine maintenance and costly spare parts. Also this technology can’t be employed to ordinary engines.

Applications


     The most common applications of common rail engines are marine and locomotive applications. Also, in the present day they are widely used in a variety of car models ranging from city cars to premium executive cars.

     Some of the Indian car manufacturers who have widely accepted the use of common rail diesel engine in their respective car models are the Hyundai Motors, Maruti Suzuki, Fiat, General Motors, Honda Motors, and the Skoda. In the list of luxury car manufacturers, the Mercedes-Benz and BMW have also adopted this advanced engine technology. All the car manufacturers have given their own unique names to the common CRDi engine system.

     However, most of the car manufacturers have started using the new engine concept and are appreciating the long term benefits of the same. The technology that has revolutionized the diesel engine market is now gaining prominence in the global car industry.

     CRDi technology revolutionized diesel engines and also petrol engines (by introduction of GDI technology).
     By introduction of CRDi a lot of advantages are obtained, some of them are, more power is developed, increased fuel efficiency, reduced noise, more stability, pollutants are reduced, particulates of exhaust are reduced, exhaust gas recirculation is enhanced, precise injection timing is obtained, pilot and post injection increase the combustion quality, more pulverization of fuel is obtained, very high injection pressure can be achieved, the powerful microcomputer make the whole system more perfect, it doubles the torque at lower engine speeds. The main disadvantage is that this technology increase the cost of the engine. Also this technology can’t be employed to ordinary engines.


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